In February 2006, H.E. Ambassador Said Tayeb Jawad, Afghanistan’s top diplomatic envoy to the United States, sat down with IAR Editor-in-Chief Adele Waugaman to discuss the process of nation-building in one of the world’s youngest democracies. His comments focused on the next phase of Afghanistan’s reconstruction following succesful implementation of the institution-building objectives outlined in the 2001 Bonn Agreement.
Preventing Weak States From Failing: Regional Integration as a Solution For Central Africa
State failure, or the breakdown of political order in nation-states, poses a significant problem in contemporary international affairs. This is particularly the case in Central Africa, where many states are increasingly incapable of guaranteeing adequate levels of security, stability, and internal cohesion. Indeed, the risk of social fragmentation and civil disorder in this troubled region is rising. This article argues that in the case of Central Africa,regional institutions could help counterbalance this ongoing destabilization by providing a tool with the potential to prevent weak states from failing.
Toward Greater Oil Security: The International Energy Agency As a Model for Global Cooperation?
When in August 2005 Hurricane Katrina slammed into the U.S. Gulf Coast causing one of the worst natural disasters in American history, the United States turned to the International Energy Agency (IEA) for help. The IEA stepped in to offset supply disruptions by releasing millions of barrels of oil to the U.S. market, thereby reigning in skyrocketing oil prices and helping to restore order. Initially tasked with maximizing energy security among a select group of member states, the IEA today has developed into an institution with broader potential for mediating market and political tensions between oilproducing and oil-consuming states. This article considers whether the IEA could serve as a model for the future of global oil security cooperation.
Peace and Development in Haiti: “This Time We Must Get It Right”
Brett Ashley Edwards
Today, Haiti is still critically underdeveloped economically with little political and social infrastructure. In response to Haiti’s request for international support, the United Nations (UN) has repeatedly taken action through both the Security Council (UNSC), and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). A decade later after the UN began its work in Haiti, the world is again being asked to assist Haiti’s political stability, security and economic development. Development and security can no longer be considered solely in military and political terms. To “get it right” in Haiti, planning by the international community should bear in mind the interrelated nature of political, social, and economic underdevelopment. Beyond sustained international assistance, Haiti must ensure the implementation of healthy national development strategies.
Security and Fundamentalism in Uzbekistan: Challenges for U.S. Engagement
Marvin B. Fried
This article analyzes security and fundamentalism in Uzbekistan, identifying key areas for U.S. engagement in light of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The article begins by examining the historical significance of Uzbekistan’s colonization by Russia, the suppression of Islam by the Soviets, and the forging of an artificial Uzbek identity by Moscow and later by Tashkent. It then moves to an analysis of present-day Uzbekistan, looking at active Islamic fundamentalist groups, their effect on the security of the country, and government efforts to deal with them. Finally, the article draws lessons for U.S. engagement in Uzbekistan – a leading power in Central Asia – in light of the ongoing GWOT. This article concludes that a deeper understanding and closer monitoring of Uzbekistan is vital to U.S. efforts to defuse current terrorist threats and avert those that could emerge in the future.
Lights Out in China? China’s Energy Crisis and Opportunities for U.S. Engagement
Over the next several years, the People’s Republic of China expects a substantial shortfall as it attempts to satisfy the increasing oil and electricity demands of its explosive economy. To maintain its economic and political stability, China has been forced to engage multiple nations in bilateral energy agreements. This article argues that the United States should take advantage of this recent openness by engaging China in bilateral energy deals. In particular, Washington should collaborate with Beijing to guarantee access to new and developing markets, to help secure stable oil prices, and to research and develop alternative fuels and nuclear energy technology. This cooperation would provide energy security benefits to both countries by helping to reduce their vulnerability to the whims of the oil market. U.S.-Sino energy deals could furthermore offer significant opportunities for Washington to influence Beijing’s economic and political reforms.
Justice for War Crimes in Sudan: Is the International Criminal Court the Answer?
Since 2003, the Darfur region of western Sudan has been the site of extensive human rights violations including mass murder, rape, torture, and displacement. A United Nations report found these abuses amounted to war crimes and crimes against humanity, and attributed these crimes to the Sudanese military, state-supported militias known as the Janjaweed, and, to a lesser extent, rebel forces. To address the question of justice for war crimes in Sudan, in April 2005 the UN Security Council referred the Darfur matter to the International Criminal Court (ICC) – the world’s first permanent court with jurisdiction to try individuals accused of violating international humanitarian and human rights law. This article first explores whether the ICC is the most appropriate justice mechanism by reviewing ICC jurisdiction and state sovereignty concerns. It then considers the social and political factors related to alternative justice proposals. This analysis reveals that the ICC is indeed the most appropriate and effective forum available, and further identifies policy areas deserving special attention in the next steps of this accountability effort.
Interview with Luis Moreno-Ocampo
Luis Moreno-Ocampo, chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), sat down with IAR in September 2005 to discuss challenges facing the world’s first permanent and independent court capable of trying human rights abusers. His comments focus on the ICC’s investigations into the Darfur conflict in Sudan, the Ugandan civil war infamous for its conscription of child soldiers, and the bloody hostilities in the mineral-rich Democratic Republic of the Congo.