Volume XI, No. II: 2002

Paying Attention to Bangladesh: U.S. Foreign Policy and Religious Extremism in a Developing Nation
Joseph J. Schatz

This article explores religious extremism and terrorism in Bangladesh, a developing South Asian nation with a moderate Islamic history and good relations with the United States, in the context of post-September 11 international politics. To help prevent the growth of religious extremism and terrorism in Bangladesh, the United States government should increase law enforcement and intelligence cooperation with the government, promote Bangladesh as a key Muslim ally, and, most importantly, initiate a longer-term U.S. focus on improving education, alleviating poverty and ensuring a stable democratic process. [Full Text]

"Indigenous Knowledge" and Development: The Anthropological Perspective
Paola Pettinari

Indigenous knowledge (IK) is a body of knowledge associated with the long-term occupancy of a certain place. It is experiential, informal, uncodified knowledge, as opposed to the “literate” or “expert” knowledge typically attributed to Western science. However, not all scholars agree with this distinction, and some question the category of IK itself. The conceptual issues of the relation between IK and Western science are at the core of the debate surrounding the interpretation of the use of IK in development practice. Integrating IK into development operations poses many challenges. These are mostly related to the assumptions that both the strengths and the weaknesses of IK can be deduced from its local, situational character and that IK is dynamic and difficult to grasp and represent. Notwithstanding these difficulties, a large part of the literature provides ample evidence to support the benefits of utilizing IK in development activities, but in recent years even this view has been questioned. [Full Text]

Making the Nuclear Choice: Strategic and Regional Factors in State Acquisition of Nuclear Weapons
Michael Gonzalez

The nuclear age has seen relatively few concerted efforts by states to acquire nuclear weapons, a trend contrary to what scholars had earlier expected. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was drafted to dissuade this expected proliferation. Up until the late 1990s it appeared to have been successful; however, the Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests challenged this assumption and revealed the difficulty of applying the treaty to states that were resistant to its precepts. This article argues that although the treaty has been important for non-proliferation, other factors have played a more decisive role in state calculations to acquire nuclear weapons. Applying a theoretical perspective that takes into account variations in regional dynamics will strengthen the goals of the non-proliferation regime. [Full Text]

Diversifying the Oil Supply: Recommendations for Productive U.S. Involvement in Equatorial Guinea
Ryan A. Ives

With the rise of the al Qaeda terrorist network and the global war against terrorism impacting Middle East petroleum interests, it has become increasingly important for the United States to consider alternative sources of oil. New and important oil discoveries are being made on the western coast of Africa. In particular, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea is experiencing rapid change due to its sudden wealth of offshore petroleum resources. The United States should move quickly to strengthen its relationship with this new oil producer and gain from its unique lead role in oil production there. This article describes the current environment surrounding oil production in Equatorial Guinea, and offers policy recommendations to help the United States develop a strategic relationship with the country. [Full Text]

Palermo Diplomacy: Academic and Legal Implications of the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime
Jonathan Weinberger

The changing nature of the world order has also transformed how international crime syndicates operate and prosper. The advent of new and complicated technologies, along with lingering and ubiquitous old-fashioned greed and corruption, drew well over 100 nations to Palermo, Italy in December 2000 to sign the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime. Although this effort is laudable, the execution and implementation deserve closer scrutiny. Does the convention have any merit or practical application to fighting increasingly complicated crime that transcends borders? A closer reading of the convention suggests it does not. [Full Text]

Is Higher Education a Luxury for Developing Countries in Africa? An Economic Analysis
Joseph Nga T.

This article uses economic theory and reasoning to evaluate higher education’s relevance to and impact on economic development in Africa. Some economists argue against the expansion of higher education in Africa because of what they claim to be low economic and social returns and the rent-seeking behavior of African elites. However, this article uses econometric and empirical evidence linking higher education and economic growth to challenge the above arguments and defend investments in higher education in Africa. The article concludes with optimistic assessments of the promise of higher education—the brain and economic engine that will allow Africa to leapfrog stages of academic and economic development in the twenty-first century. [Full Text]

The Burden of the Balkan Mandate: A Critical Assessment of Humanitarian Intervention in Kosovo
Alexander Melikishvili

This article seeks to assess the success of the NATO humanitarian intervention in the Kosovo province of the Federal Yugoslav Republic. It poses three questions central to the NATO peacekeeping mission in Kosovo: How did the causes of the Kosovo crisis affect the likelihood of intervention success? What can be done to improve the likelihood of a successful intervention? Finally, are there certain risks involved in such endeavors? It finds that humanitarian intervention in Kosovo has led to the creation of an international protectorate on the territory of the secessionist province. Without offering a comprehensive solution to the underlying problem of the political status of Kosovo, the commitment of NATO troops seems to be tantamount to simply maintaining the ceasefire—a commitment that could become indefinite. [Full Text]

Globalization and Appropriate Governance
Jagdish Bhagwati

This feature is a revised and augmented version of a lecture delivered on 17 April 2002 by Professor Bhagwati as part of The Robert J. Pelosky, Jr. Distinguished Speaker Series at the Elliott School of International Affairs at The George Washington University. [Full Text]

Interview with Ambassador Karl F. Inderfurth
Director of the International Affairs Program at the Elliott School

The International Affairs Review sat down with Ambassador Karl F. Inderfurth, the new Director of the Elliott School’s International Affairs program. Ambassador Inderfurth discussed the role of the Elliott School in educating tomorrow’s leaders and the challenges that the United States and the rest of the world face following the 11 September attacks. [Full Text]

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