Volume XII, No.1: 2003

Standing on the Shoulders of Others: An Interview with William S. Cohen

The International Affairs Review sat down with former Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen to discuss U.S. foreign policy. Secretary Cohen explained President Bill Clinton's foreign policy of engagement and the military's role in achieving foreign policy objectives. President George W. Bush has followed a similar path, especially while conducting the war on terrorism. Finally, Secretary Cohen offers his advice for how young people should prepare themselves for a career in international relations.

National Parks in Development Schemes: Problems and Plans for Protected Areas in Southeast Asia
Keith Bettinger

Developed nations devote substantial funding to protected areas and national parks. Their citizens recognize the benefits and necessity of parks. However, developing nations often lack the resources and political will to protect vulnerable ecosystems. This is because the economic benefit is sometimes obscured, and several competing interests may be at odds. This article articulates a framework describing how national parks may be used as tools for sustainable development in Southeast Asia. The article examines the conservation, educational, and economic aspects of protected areas, addressing these core functions from four perspectives: indigenous people, ecosystems, management, and tourists. The framework provides an approach for comprehensive policy design and implementation that takes into account the aforementioned perspectives, thus maximizing the value of protected areas.

Corruption, Rule of Law, and Civil Society: Why Patronage Politics Is Good for Developing Markets and Democracies
Hyung-Gon Paul Yoo

As developing nations around the world sink further into poverty and anarchy, the Western development community continues to point to the rule of law and civil society as the twin solutions toward democracy and market capitalism. This article argues that this formula of promoting rule of law and civil society at the cost of and toward the elimination of patron-client politics would be a grave mistake. It further argues that patronage politics encompasses a wide array of social, political, and economic forms of exchange, and that it is therefore necessary to distinguish between positive forms of cronyism (patron-clientelism) from its negative variations (corruption outright). Using the disparate case studies of South Korea, an apparent success story, and Kenya, an economic underachiever, the article documents the ways in which patronclientelism serves as an effective short-term substitute to democracy proper and free market capitalism for developing countries situated in a second-best world.

Globalization and Human Rights: The Apparel Industry in the Developing World
Matthew Wilkins

Globalization of the apparrel industry has transplanted thousands of factories and millions of jobs to developing countries. This is contributing to rapid economic growth, yet it is also creating sweatshops that repress workers' rights. Throughout the 1990s, media campaigns repeatedly exposed sweatshops. Negative publicity prompted clothing corporations to adopt specific labor codes of conduct, which have sometimes been effective, but have also often been simply a faهade. In spite of the bad working conditions in many sweatshops, the overall lesson from the apparel industry is that globalization generally furthers the economic human rights of the world's poor.

A Biotech Solution for Japan: How Innovation Can Lead to Better Times
Tong Zhao

Although largely ignored by previous Japanese business and government policy, biotechnology can serve as an important tool in revitalizing Japan's economy. This article explores the various applications of life science technologies in Japan and analyzes how the nation can utilize its strong institutions to support the development of an indigenous biotechnology sector. Three core examples population trends, technology development, and resource management are isolated as areas where Japan could most benefit from biotechnology. Policy suggestions focus on a long-term strategy of government and corporate research and development and short-term technology transfer from the West through a variety of educational and business conduits.

Toward a European Federal Union
Timothy Spence

The Convention on the Future of Europe is in the process of drafting a constitutional framework for the European Union. The draft constitution will emerge by 2004, the same year that the 15-member Union could add 10 new states. This confluence of events is no coincidence, for the EU's current and future member states are struggling to address several challenges: democratic legitimacy, efficiency, and how to manage a diversity of governing styles and cultures while concurrently harmonizing their economies. Even though many EU leaders assiduously avoid the "f-word" - federalism - the future of the European miracle may eventually depend on a flexible federal system. This article is not about writing a constitution for Europe, but it does address a process of getting to one and a system that can help such a constitution function in the future.

EU Membership Has Its Privileges, and Turkey Knows It
Aris Yortzidis

As the European Union (EU) prepares to welcome 10 new countries in May 2004, large questions loom over the fate of Turkey's accession to Europe's elite club. Plagued by economic, political, and social problems, Turkey cannot afford to sit on the periphery of Europe. While austerity measures imposed by the Turkish government have assisted the nation in fulfilling many of the criteria for entrance into the EU, these reforms have not been enough to put them on a clear path to EU accession. The status quo on the island of Cyprus also threatens Turkey's chances of joining the Union, with Cyprus prepared to join in May 2004. Although the election of a moderate Islamic party led by controversial leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan raised new questions about Turkey's political situation, the party's pro-Western and pro-European stance indicates that Turkey is moving in the right direction. By continuing to adhere to the Copenhagen criteria, Turkey can fulfill its goal of EU membership an accomplishment that would benefit Greece, Cyprus, the EU, the United States, and Turkey.

Democracy According to Dayton: The United States and International Community’s Role in Bosnia-Hercegovina
Alexandra Shuey

The completion of United Nations Mission in Bosnia-Hercegovina on 31 December 2002 is a signal of progress made since the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Dayton seven years ago. The political stability and democratic viability of the country as provided for under that agreement, however, remains debatable. The transformation of the Dayton Accords from a basic, conflict-ending settlement to a more comprehensive, long-term agreement has been, and continues to be, a formidable task. This article examines the challenges that faced the architects of the Dayton Accords, the difficulties that remain in bringing about sustainable democratic change, and offers policy recommendations for the international community's presence in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

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