Volume XII, No. II 2003

Senator McCain on U.S. Foreign Policy Post-September 11

Peacekeeping in Afghanistan and the need for assistance from the United Nations (UN) and NATO in rebuilding Iraq are at the top of the list of U.S. foreign policy issues facing the Bush Administration in a post-September 11 world, said U.S. Senator John McCain (R-AZ). In a recent interview for International Affairs Review, McCain discussed the peacekeeping and rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq now that the wars in those regions are officially over.

Conflict or Compromise? 
Neoliberalism and Indigenous Rights in Latin America

Christopher Wyrod

This article explores two theories on the relationship between neoliberal policies and indigenous social movements in Latin America. Neoliberalism and indigenous rights movements are commonly portrayed as adversarial, or conflicting opposites, each working against the other. However, recent scholarship challenges this view, arguing that, through neoliberal multiculturalism, Latin American governments can facilitate neoliberal policies by compromising on indigenous rights. Using case studies of Mexico and Ecuador, this article outlines the debate between the theories of conflicting opposites and neoliberal multiculturalism. The author argues that neoliberalism is malleable, incorporating indigenous rights to facilitate state control and economic reform. The article concludes that this malleability may enable indigenous peoples to find alternatives conflict or compromise.

The Crisis in Zimbabwe

Michael Goldman

The political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe, brought on by the subjugation of democracy and the rule of law by the regime of President Robert Mugabe, deserves sustained attention from the international community. This paper outlines the background of the crisis, describes the atrocities committed by the regime, and makes a case for a concerted, coordinated preventive strategy for major players in the region and in the international community.

Power and Partnership with Pyongyang: 
A Precarious Balance

Keith Bettinger, Iku Fujimatsu, Katharine Starrett

A product of both the division of the Korean peninsula and international isolation, the present situation in North Korea exhibits a familiar pattern of threats and brinksmanship. The policy options for Washington vary from military action, to awaiting the collapse of the North Korean regime, to offering inducement—as was the case in 1993-94—but the only long-term solution is multi-track diplomacy. As a creative alternative, multi-track diplomacy includes all of the regional players and encourages relations in several layers, from grassroots organizing through NGOs and businesses, to governmental relations in a multilateral setting. Peace and stability will only be achieved through connecting North Korea to the international community via political, cultural, economic, educational, and civil society ties.

The Problem of Landmines: 
The United States and the Ottawa Convention
Daniel Keegan

This paper traces the United States’ landmine policy and speculates about the Bush Administration’s policy review conclusions. One hundred and forty six countries have signed the 1997 Ottawa Convention banning anti-personnel landmines (APLs), yet the world’s superpower is not one of them. Despite being the first head of state to call for a ban on APLs, President Clinton yielded to his military officers and refused to sign the treaty. Current U.S. policy calls for the United States to sign the treaty in 2006, and to eliminate its APL stockpiles outside of the Korean peninsula by fall 2003. Since taking office, the Bush Administration has begun a policy review, but has not made a decision. Observers do not expect the Bush Administration to join the Ottawa Convention and, moreover, worry that APLs may be used in Iraq, as they were in the Persian Gulf War.

Combating Coca in Colombia and Bolivia: 
A Critique of U.S. Drug Eradication Policies in the Andes

Nancy McGuire

Since the mid-1980s, Bolivia and Colombia have shared the dubious honor as principal suppliers of coca, the raw ingredient for cocaine. The forces that have led each country to dominate the coca market include underdevelopment, poverty, lack of economic opportunity, and weak government. In determining the most appropriate course of action in Colombia today, this paper applies the lessons from the recent failure of coca eradication efforts in Bolivia. The paper explores the ultimate economic factors that increase susceptibility to the drug industry, identifies the weaknesses of current policies, and suggests a new framework for future policies.

The Russian Oil Sector and the Global Oil Economy: A Prospectus

David Quaya

Concerned about dependence on imported oil, many U.S. policymakers have looked to Russia as a possible alternative to Saudi crude. Since 1998, Russian oil production has experienced impressive growth owing to higher average energy prices. While Russia does possess vast reserves of crude oil, however, its ability to provide the U.S. with an alternative to Middle Eastern oil is dubious given recent trends. Russia continues to attract relatively little foreign investment and its oil sector suffers from aging infrastructure that is already running at full capacity. Additionally, despite modest improvements in corporate culture and some legislative reforms, Russia remains ostracized by foreign oil firms. Without substantial modernization, particularly in upstream production and international transportation, Russia will not be able to provide the U.S. with a reliable, alternative source of crude oil.

Space Power Beyond Challenge: 
The Wrong Direction for the United States

Avery Sen

Space systems are a crucial and necessary element to contemporary American warfare tactics. However, the militarization of space should not give way to the weaponization of space (that is, the development of weapons capable of attacking targets in space or targets on earth from space). Despite much rhetoric on the vulnerability of American space infrastructure and the presumed inevitability of space as a future battleground, weaponizing space would prove technologically, economically, and strategically impractical, especially when compared to existing or alternative security measures. Furthermore, American weaponization of space would bolster resentment toward the U.S. in the rest of the world and could incite an international space arms race. As the world’s dominant military and space power, the United States should take the leading role in maintaining space for peaceful purposes, as stated in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967.

Globalization and Its Discontents

Joseph Stiglitz 
recipient of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Economics

There have been two alternative views of globalization. One view of globalization is that it is the best thing since sliced bread. For those who do not know American expressions, this means it was supposed to bring unprecedented prosperity to all the countries of the world including the developing countries. The other view of globalization is a little less positive; in fact it is quite negative in that it has brought a whole host of difficulties and problems, exacerbated poverty, undermined democracy, undermined domestic culture.

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