Mass immigration from Africa poses a challenge to four key aspects of European identity: observance of human rights, internal peace, economic growth and superpower status. This paper will demonstrate that these European ideals are far from contradictory to a legal recognition of African immigrants—in fact, an increasing legal acknowledgement of the European Union’s immigrant population will be an indispensable step toward the European Union’s stated ideals. Taking Spain as its point of departure, this paper will suggest that the capacity of a nation-state to offer legal tolerance to its most marginal immigrants will disproportionately determine the EU’s status as a bastion of human rights, a safeguard of internal peace, an engine of economic growth, and a powerful voice in global affairs.
The Anatomy of Transnational Corruption
Glenn T. Ware and Gregory P. Noone
Transnational corruption is one of the most complex, serious, and intriguing forms of criminal activity that impacts the developing world. This article seeks to unmask this form of corruption, which the authors have found has a common anatomy throughout the world. This article describes the various schemes repeatedly employed by corrupt actors worldwide: bribery, kickback brokers, front companies, bid rigging, official-owned enterprises, theft from government accounts, and abuse of public assets. Finally, this article recommends actions that international financial institutions can undertake to mitigate or reduce the incidence of this social, developmental, political, and national security threat.
A Groupthink Perspective on the Invasion of Iraq
The failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq has led many observers of international affairs to question why the Bush administration appeared so confident of the existence of these weapons prior to the war. This article suggests that a partial answer to this question can be found by applying Irving Janis’s “groupthink” model, which examines pressures for concurrence-seeking in small groups. While Janis’s model yields important insights into the case of U.S. decision-making leading up to the war in Iraq, this case illustrates some of the shortcomings of the groupthink theory. From a policy perspective, this analysis illustrates the necessity of supporting debate in the policy-making process and the perils of acting on worst-case thinking.
Where There's Sugar, the Ants Come: Piracy in the Strait of Malacca
The increase in international trade over the past decade means more opportunities for pirates to attack merchant ships. Where there's sugar, the ants come." - Hamid Mustapha, Director of the Royal Malaysian Police, 2001 The Strait of Malacca is the world's second busiest commercial shipping lane and the lifeline of the economy of many countries that depend on the safe and timely shipment of oil and industrial goods to support economic growth. However, maritime piracy continues to be a paramount threat in the Strait. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of current international laws against piracy, the characteristics and motivations of pirates, and the measures in which involved states can take to combat piracy and ensure greater safety of maritime commerce.
Human Security and Smart Sanctions: Two Means
Sascha Werthes and David Bosold
This article provides an argument supporting the inclusion of "smart sanctions" in human se-curity concepts that focus on protecting the individual from physical violence. The authors argue that when human security fails as a proactive conflict prevention policy, smart sanctions can serve as a reactive policy by preventing the further escalation of conflict. Thus, by com-bining both smart sanctions and human security, enforcement of a rule can be achieved by peaceful means, including the simultaneous protection of societal groups and the individual, without resorting to the use of military force.
Fighting the War on Terror will continue to require many organizational, strategic and tactical changes, including new methods of covert action that can be effectively employed against closed, fanatical terrorist groups like al Qaeda. This paper argues that the United States should attempt to use Western terrorist organizations to penetrate Islamic extremist groups. The paper examines the feasibility of using derivatives of the Irish Republican Army and Russian organized crime as “trojan horses” capable of approaching and identifying Islamic terrorists in the market for documents, weapons, and other illicit materials and/or services. The paper concludes that, while there are many risks and difficulties in applying this tactic, it is superior to other options and has viable success potential.
Participatory Development and the World Bank
Robert D. Lamb, Bill Varettoni, and Chunli Shen
The World Bank has officially supported the notion of participatory development for over a decade, arguing that development projects are more effective when beneficiaries have a role in the way projects are chosen, planned, implemented, and evaluated. In practice, however, the Bank’s primary model of development continues to be based on expertise rather than participation. This is partly because the participatory model has not been definitively proven to be effective in all Bank projects. This paper criticizes the theory and practice of participatory development in light of the Bank’s experiences, and recommends that the Bank make a stronger effort, not just to promote or encourage participatory development, but to study what specific participatory mechanisms have been shown to work in what kinds of projects and under what circumstances, and then to identify the specific tasks that staff on those projects would need to accomplish to incorporate those mechanisms into their work.
In March 2005 the Club de Madrid convened a major international summit on Terrorism and Democracy on the occasion of the first anniversary of the Madrid train station bombings. I was honored to serve as chairman of the committee exploring the psychological roots of terrorism, and recruited a group of ten international experts on terrorist psychology. This essay which I drafted and presented to the summit was drawn from our committee’s deliberations through a web log over a four month period.